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Am J Neurodegener Dis 2013;2(2):89-107

Review Article
Immunity and inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases

Giuseppe Cappellano, Miryam Carecchio, Thomas Fleetwood, Luca Magistrelli, Roberto Cantello, Umberto Dianzani,
Cristoforo Comi

Interdisciplinary Research Center of Autoimmune Diseases (IRCAD), University of Eastern Piedmont, “Amedeo
Avogadro”, Novara, Italy; Department of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Piedmont, “Amedeo Avogadro”, Novara,
Italy; Department of Translational Medicine, Section of Neurology, University of Eastern Piedmont, “Amedeo Avogadro”,
Novara, Italy

Received May 27, 2013; Accepted June 11, 2013; Epub June 21, 2013; Published July 1, 2013

Abstract: Immune reactions inside the central nervous system are finely regulated, thanks to the presence of several
checkpoints that have the fundamental purpose to preserve this fragile tissue form harmful events. The current
knowledge on the role of neuroinflammation and neuro-immune interactions in the fields of multiple sclerosis,
Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease is reviewed. Moreover, a focus on the potential role of both active and
passive immunotherapy is provided. Finally, we propose a common perspective, which implies that, under
pathological conditions, inflammation may exert both detrimental and protective functions, depending on local factors
and the timing of immune activation and shutting-off systems. (AJND1305006).

Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinsons disease, neuroinflammation, neuro-immnue

Address correspondence to: Dr. Cristoforo Comi, Department of Translational Medicine, Amedeo Avogadro University,
Via Solaroli 17 - 28100 Novara, Italy. Phone: +39.0321.3733965; E-mail: comi@med.unipmn.it